Brief introduction to the basic structure and control track of the motion control system

Motion control originated from early servo control. Simply put, motion control is the real-time control and management of the position and speed of mechanical moving parts, so that they move according to the expected motion trajectory and the specified motion parameters. Early motion control technology was developed with the development of numerical control technology, robot technology and factory automation technology. Early motion controllers were actually dedicated controllers that could operate independently, often without the need for additional processor and operating system support, and could independently perform motion control functions, other functions required by the process technology, and human-computer interaction functions. This type of controller can be a stand-alone motion controller. These controllers are mainly designed for specialized CNC machines and other automation equipment. They have been designed with relevant functions according to the process requirements of the application industry. Users only need to write application processing code files according to their protocol requirements and transmit them by RS232 or DNC. To the controller, the controller can complete the relevant actions. Such controllers often cannot be separated from their specific process requirements and cross-industry applications. The openness of the controller depends only on the controller's processing code protocol, and the user cannot reorganize his own motion control system according to the application requirements.

Definition of motion control

Motion Control (MC) is a branch of automation that uses some devices known as servos, such as hydraulic pumps, linear actuators or motors to control the position and/or speed of the machine. The application of motion control in the field of robots and CNC machine tools is more complicated than in specialized machines because the latter is simpler in motion and is often referred to as General Motion Control (GMC). Motion control is widely used in the packaging, printing, textile and assembly industries.

Brief introduction to the basic structure and control track of the motion control system

The basic structure of the motion control system

A motion controller is used to generate a track point (expected output) and a closed position feedback loop. Many controllers can also close a speed loop internally.

A drive or amplifier is used to convert a control signal (usually a speed or torque signal) from the motion controller into a higher power current or voltage signal. A more advanced intelligent drive can close the position loop and speed loop by itself for more precise control.

An actuator such as a hydraulic pump, cylinder, linear actuator or motor is used to output motion.

A feedback sensor such as a photoelectric encoder, resolver or Hall effect device is used to feed back the position of the actuator to the position controller to effect closure of the position control loop.

Numerous mechanical components are used to convert the motion form of the actuator into the desired form of motion, including gearboxes, shafts, ball screws, toothed belts, couplings, and linear and rotary bearings.

In terms of motion control, the control trajectory required for several sports

(1) Point-to-Point: The use of a single axis, through the instruction set of the motion control card, controls the single axis to move from point A to point B, so it is also called point-to-point motion.

(2) InterpolaTIon: The tween movement can usually be divided into linear tween and arc tween motion. Linearity can usually consist of more than two axes, while arc tween motion consists of two axes, forming a multi-dimensional or two-dimensional motion trajectory. Usually the tween motion can be used for motion control of continuous trajectories, such as engraving or shoe molds. The analysis of the tween motion determines the control accuracy of the trajectory motion.

(3) Spiral type motion: It is composed of two-dimensional circular motion and linear motion of vertical axis, and is often used in the application of machine tools.

(4) Multi-axis simultaneous movement or simultaneous stop: control two or more motion axes to do PTP simultaneous movement, or stop at the same time.

(5) Synchronous motion control: Through the absolute synchronism of the motion control card, the multi-axis motion can be accurately controlled according to a certain time sequence, or the condition can be set so that the shaft and the shaft can move according to the mutual relationship. Usually, this type of control must be implemented by a serial motion controller. Since the serial controller and the motor driver have a specific communication protocol, absolute motion control can be implemented according to the operating clock. This article is to share with readers the technology of program motion control developed by synchronous motion.

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